Dossier Désinformation et Manipulation

De nombreuses études sont disponibles sur ce fait nouveau par son ampleur et ses technologies et supports:

la désinformation a dominé les campagnes présidentielles aux USA et en France.

Voici quelques références utiles :

 

DataAndSociety_MediaManipulationAndDisinformationOnline

Extrait

 

INTERNET TROLLS

“Trolling” developed in tandem with the internet.7

Initially, the term “troll”

described those who deliberately baited people to elicit an emotional response.

Early trolls posted inflammatory messages on Usenet groups in an attempt to catch

newbies in well-worn arguments.8

During the ‘00s, this motivation became known

as the “lulz”: finding humor (or LOLs) in sowing discord and causing reactions.

Trolls have a history of manipulating the media to call out hypocrisies and hysterias,

learning early on how to target public figures and organizations to amplify

their efforts through mainstream media.9

They have often claimed to be apolitical

and explained their use of shocking (often racist or sexist) imagery as merely a

convenient tool to offend others.

Trolling can refer to relatively innocuous pranks, but it can also take the form of

more serious behaviors. Trolling can include “mischievous activities where the

intent is not necessarily to cause distress”10 or it can seek to “ruin the reputation of

individuals and organizations and reveal embarrassing or personal information.”11

In practice, however, trolling has grown to serve as an umbrella term which

encompasses a wide variety of asocial internet behaviors.

For the purposes of our discussion, we will focus on one type of trolling prevalent

on the anonymous imageboard 4chan/b/ in the mid-2000s. Amongst the diverse

ecosystem of the contemporary media landscape, 4chan is both relatively obscure

and disproportionately influential. The site is simple. Posts consist only of images

and text posted anonymously, which disappear very quickly, often after only a few

hours.12 Despite this, 4chan is not a free-for-all; each sub-board has a designated

topic and specific norms which are strictly enforced by other users.13 (4chan’s

popularity has given rise to a variety of other “chans” including 8chan, 2chan, and

°°°

Se protéger des attaques informatiques , vu par La Tribune Bordeaux

http://objectifaquitaine.latribune.fr/business/l-actu-de-la-french-tech-bordeaux/2017-05-19/smartcity-la-serenite-numerique-malgre-les-cyber-attaques-717540.html#xtor=EREC-32280592-%5Bnewsletter_objectif_aquitaine%5D-20170519-%5B%5D-0@519-20170519151524

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