De nombreuses études sont disponibles sur ce fait nouveau par son ampleur et ses technologies et supports:
la désinformation a dominé les campagnes présidentielles aux USA et en France.
Voici quelques références utiles :
“Trolling” developed in tandem with the internet.7
Initially, the term “troll”
described those who deliberately baited people to elicit an emotional response.
Early trolls posted inflammatory messages on Usenet groups in an attempt to catch
newbies in well-worn arguments.8
During the ‘00s, this motivation became known
as the “lulz”: finding humor (or LOLs) in sowing discord and causing reactions.
Trolls have a history of manipulating the media to call out hypocrisies and hysterias,
learning early on how to target public figures and organizations to amplify
their efforts through mainstream media.9
They have often claimed to be apolitical
and explained their use of shocking (often racist or sexist) imagery as merely a
convenient tool to offend others.
Trolling can refer to relatively innocuous pranks, but it can also take the form of
more serious behaviors. Trolling can include “mischievous activities where the
intent is not necessarily to cause distress”10 or it can seek to “ruin the reputation of
individuals and organizations and reveal embarrassing or personal information.”11
In practice, however, trolling has grown to serve as an umbrella term which
encompasses a wide variety of asocial internet behaviors.
For the purposes of our discussion, we will focus on one type of trolling prevalent
on the anonymous imageboard 4chan/b/ in the mid-2000s. Amongst the diverse
ecosystem of the contemporary media landscape, 4chan is both relatively obscure
and disproportionately influential. The site is simple. Posts consist only of images
and text posted anonymously, which disappear very quickly, often after only a few
hours.12 Despite this, 4chan is not a free-for-all; each sub-board has a designated
topic and specific norms which are strictly enforced by other users.13 (4chan’s
popularity has given rise to a variety of other “chans” including 8chan, 2chan, and
Se protéger des attaques informatiques , vu par La Tribune Bordeaux